COM+ revisited

More than ten years ago (how time flies!), when I published the basic sample of a COM+ server and client, I thought that I wouldn’t be touching this subject again. But here we are, in 2022, and I have so much interaction with COM at work that I decided to write a new, updated, and a bit more detailed post about this technology ๐Ÿ˜ I don’t want to convince you to use COM as the backbone for your new applications. Instead, I want to show you how you may approach and use COM APIs if you need to work with them. We will also do some COM debugging in WinDbg. Additionally, I plan to release a new COM troubleshooting tool as part of the wtrace toolkit. Remember to subscribe to wtrace updates if you’re interested.

Today’s post will continue using the old Protoss COM classes, but we will update the code with various modern ideas. As you may remember, Nexus and Probe classes represent Blizzard’s Starcraft game objects. Nexus is a building that may produce Probes (CreateUnit method in the INexus interface), and Probe may build various structures, including Nexuses (ConstructBuilding method in the IProbe interface). I also added a new IGameObject interface, shared by Nexus and Probe, that returns the cost in minerals and the time needed to build a given game object. In IDL, it looks as follows:

[object, uuid(59644217-3e52-4202-ba49-f473590cc61a)]
interface IGameObject : IUnknown
    HRESULT Name([out, retval] BSTR* name);

    HRESULT Minerals([out, retval]LONG* minerals);

    HRESULT BuildTime([out, retval]LONG* buildtime);

I also added a type library to the IDL:

    helpstring("Protoss 1.0 Type Library")
library ProtossLib

    interface INexus;
    interface IProbe;

        helpstring("Nexus Class")
    coclass Nexus {
        [default] interface INexus;
        interface IGameObject;

        helpstring("Probe Class")
    coclass Probe {
        [default] interface IProbe;
        interface IGameObject;

If we run midl.exe after this change, it will generate a type library file (protoss.tlb). The type library provides a language-agnostic way to access COM metadata. For example, we may import it to a .NET assembly using the tlbimp.exe tool from .NET Framework SDK.

Updating the Protoss COM server

As you remember, the COM server requires a few DLL exports to make its COM classes instantiable. One of them is DllGetClassObject. The DllGetClassObject function from the old post directly constructed the Nexus and Probe objects. The more common approach is to return an IClassFactory instance for each implemented class and let the clients call its CreateInstance method. The clients often do this implicitly by calling the CoCreateInstance or CoCreateInstanceEx functions. These functions first ask for a class factory object and later use it to create a requested class instance. Supporting IClassFactory is straightforward:

STDAPI DllGetClassObject(REFCLSID rclsid, REFIID riid, LPVOID* ppv) {
	if (rclsid == __uuidof(Nexus)) {
		static ProtossObjectClassFactory<Nexus, INexus> factory{};
		return factory.QueryInterface(riid, ppv);
    if (rclsid == __uuidof(Probe)) {
		static ProtossObjectClassFactory<Probe, IProbe> factory{};
		return factory.QueryInterface(riid, ppv);

The ProtossObjectClassFactory is a class template implementing the IClassFactory interface. I want to bring your attention to the CreateInstance method:

HRESULT __stdcall CreateInstance(IUnknown* pUnkOuter, REFIID riid, void** ppv) override {
    if (pUnkOuter) {

    try {
        wil::com_ptr_t<IUnknown> unknown{};
        // attach does not call AddRef (we set ref_count to 1 in COM Objects)
        unknown.attach(static_cast<IT*>(new T()));
        return unknown->QueryInterface(riid, ppv);
    } catch (const std::bad_alloc&) {
        return E_OUTOFMEMORY;

    return S_OK;

It uses the wil::com_ptr_t class. It’s one of the many smart pointers provided by Windows Implementation Library. Thanks to wil::com_ptr_t or wil::unique_handle, we no longer need to call Release or CloseHandle methods explicitly – they are called automatically in the smart pointer destructors. Thus, we free the resources when the pointers go out of scope. WIL and modern C++ really make using RAII with Windows API straightforward ๐Ÿ˜.

One missing piece in the old code was registration. I used reg files to register the Protoss COM library in the system. It’s not the best way to do so, and, instead, we should implement DllRegisterServer and DllUnregisterServer functions so that the clients may register and unregister our library with the regsvr32.exe tool. The code presented below is based on the sample from the great Windows 10 System Programming book by Pavel Yosifovich. Only in my version, I used WIL, and you may quickly see its usage benefits when you look at the original version (for example, no calls to CloseHandle and no error checks thanks to WIL result macros):

std::array<std::tuple<std::wstring_view, std::wstring, std::wstring>, 2> coclasses{
	std::tuple<std::wstring_view, std::wstring, std::wstring> { L"Protoss Nexus", wstring_from_guid(__uuidof(Nexus)), L"Protoss.Nexus.1" },
	std::tuple<std::wstring_view, std::wstring, std::wstring> { L"Protoss Probe", wstring_from_guid(__uuidof(Probe)), L"Protoss.Probe.1" },

STDAPI DllRegisterServer() {
	auto create_reg_subkey_with_value = [](HANDLE transaction, HKEY regkey, std::wstring_view subkey_name, std::wstring_view subkey_value) {
		wil::unique_hkey subkey{};
		RETURN_IF_WIN32_ERROR(::RegCreateKeyTransacted(regkey,, 0, nullptr, REG_OPTION_NON_VOLATILE,
			KEY_WRITE, nullptr, subkey.put(), nullptr, transaction, nullptr));
		RETURN_IF_WIN32_ERROR(::RegSetValueEx(subkey.get(), nullptr, 0, REG_SZ,
			reinterpret_cast<const BYTE*>(, static_cast<DWORD>((subkey_value.size() + 1) * sizeof(wchar_t))));

		return S_OK;

	wil::unique_handle transaction{ ::CreateTransaction(nullptr, nullptr, TRANSACTION_DO_NOT_PROMOTE, 0, 0, INFINITE, nullptr) };

	for (const auto& coclass : coclasses) {
		auto name{ std::get<0>(coclass) };
		auto clsid{ std::get<1>(coclass) };
		auto progId{ std::get<2>(coclass) };

		wil::unique_hkey regkey{};
		// CLSID
		RETURN_IF_WIN32_ERROR(::RegCreateKeyTransacted(HKEY_CLASSES_ROOT, (L"CLSID\\" + clsid).c_str(),
			0, nullptr, REG_OPTION_NON_VOLATILE, KEY_WRITE, nullptr, regkey.put(), nullptr, transaction.get(), nullptr));
		RETURN_IF_WIN32_ERROR(::RegSetValueEx(regkey.get(), L"", 0, REG_SZ,
			reinterpret_cast<const BYTE*>(, static_cast<DWORD>((name.size() + 1) * sizeof(wchar_t))));

		RETURN_IF_FAILED(create_reg_subkey_with_value(transaction.get(), regkey.get(), L"InprocServer32", dll_path));
		RETURN_IF_FAILED(create_reg_subkey_with_value(transaction.get(), regkey.get(), L"ProgID", dll_path));

		// ProgID
		RETURN_IF_WIN32_ERROR(::RegCreateKeyTransacted(HKEY_CLASSES_ROOT, progId.c_str(),
			0, nullptr, REG_OPTION_NON_VOLATILE, KEY_WRITE, nullptr, regkey.put(), nullptr, transaction.get(), nullptr));
		RETURN_IF_WIN32_ERROR(::RegSetValueEx(regkey.get(), L"", 0, REG_SZ,
			reinterpret_cast<const BYTE*>(, static_cast<DWORD>((name.size() + 1) * sizeof(wchar_t))));

		RETURN_IF_FAILED(create_reg_subkey_with_value(transaction.get(), regkey.get(), L"CLSID", clsid));


	return S_OK;

As you maybe noticed, I also added the registration of ProgIDs (Protoss.Nexus.1 and Protoss.Probe.1), which are human-friendly names for our COM classes. With these functions implemented, registering our COM classes is now a matter of calling regsvr32.exe protoss.dll from the administrator’s command line.

Updating the Protoss COM client

Thanks to the type library, we no longer need to explicitly generate and include the header files, but we may import the type library directly into the source code. The #import directive that we use for this purpose has several attributes controlling the representation of the type library in C++. For example, in the Protoss COM client, I’m using the raw_interfaces_only attribute as I want to work with the Protoss interfaces directly using the WIL com_ptr_t smart pointers. Our COM server uses IClassFactory, so we may call the CoCreateInstance function to create an instance of the Nexus class:

#include <iostream>

#include <Windows.h>
#include <wil/com.h>

#import "..\protoss.tlb" raw_interfaces_only

using namespace ProtossLib;

HRESULT show_game_unit_data(IUnknown* unknwn) {
    wil::com_ptr_t<IGameObject> unit{};

    wil::unique_bstr name{};
    LONG minerals;
    LONG buildtime;

    std::wcout << L"Name: " << name.get() << L", minerals: " << minerals
        << L", build time: " << buildtime << std::endl;

    return S_OK;

void start_from_probe() {
	wil::com_ptr_t<IProbe> probe{};

	THROW_IF_FAILED(::CoCreateInstance(__uuidof(Probe), nullptr, CLSCTX_INPROC_SERVER, __uuidof(IProbe), probe.put_void()));

	auto name{ wil::make_bstr(L"Nexus") };
	wil::com_ptr_t<INexus> nexus{};
	THROW_IF_FAILED(probe->ConstructBuilding(name.get(), nexus.put_unknown()));

int main(int argc, char* argv[]) {

    try {
        // a "smart call object" that will execute CoUnitialize in destructor
        auto runtime{ wil::CoInitializeEx(COINIT_APARTMENTTHREADED) };


        return 0;
    } catch (const wil::ResultException& ex) {
        std::cout << ex.what() << std::endl;
        return 1;
    } catch (const std::exception& ex) {
        std::cout << ex.what() << std::endl;
        return 1;

If you run the client, you should see the calls to the QueryInterface method and logs from constructors and destructors in the console:

Component: Nexus::QueryInterface: 246a22d5-cf02-44b2-bf09-aab95a34e0cf
Component: Probe::AddRef() ref_count = 2
Component: Probe::Release() ref_count = 1
Component: Probe::AddRef() ref_count = 2
Component: Probe::Release() ref_count = 1
Component: Nexus::QueryInterface: 246a22d5-cf02-44b2-bf09-aab95a34e0cf
Component: Probe::AddRef() ref_count = 2
Component: Probe::Release() ref_count = 1
Component: Nexus::QueryInterface: 59644217-3e52-4202-ba49-f473590cc61a
Component: Probe::AddRef() ref_count = 2
Name: Probe, minerals: 50, build time: 12
Component: Probe::Release() ref_count = 1
Component: Nexus::QueryInterface: 59644217-3e52-4202-ba49-f473590cc61a
Component: Nexus::AddRef() ref_count = 2
Name: Nexus, minerals: 400, build time: 120
Component: Nexus::Release() ref_count = 1
Component: Nexus::Release() ref_count = 0
Component: Nexus::~Nexus()
Component: Probe::Release() ref_count = 0
Component: Probe::~Probe()

We can see that all class instances are eventually freed, so, hurray ๐ŸŽ‰, we aren’t leaking any memory!

If you’d like to practice writing COM client code, you may implement a start_from_nexus function to output the same information, but create the Nexus class first. Don’t look at the client code in the repository, as this function is already there ๐Ÿ˜Š

C++ is not the only language to write a COM client. Let’s now implement the same logic in C#. I picked C# not without reason. .NET Runtime provides excellent support for working with native COM objects. Each COM class receives a Runtime Callable Wrapper that makes the COM class look like any other .NET class. Now, you can imagine the number of magic layers to make it happen. So, there is no surprise that sometimes, you may need to wear a magical debugging hat to resolve a problem in COM interop ๐Ÿ˜… But if you look at the code, it’s effortless:

using ProtossLib;

public static class Program
    static void ShowGameUnitData(IGameObject go)
        Console.WriteLine($"Name: {go.Name}, minerals: {go.Minerals}, build time: {go.BuildTime}");

    static void StartingFromProbe()
        var probe = new Probe();

        var nexus = probe.ConstructBuilding("Nexus");

        //_ = Marshal.ReleaseComObject(nexus);
        //_ = Marshal.ReleaseComObject(probe);

    static void Main()

        // force release of the COM objects

If you decompile the ProtossLib.dll assembly, you will discover that Probe is, in fact, an interface with a CoClass attribute. And, although it does not implement IGameObject, we may cast it to IGameObject. Magical, isn’t it? ๐Ÿ˜Š Mixed-mode debugging helps a lot when debugging COM interop in .NET. For example, if you set a breakpoint on the QueryInterface method in the Probe class, you will discover that it i called when you cast the managed Probe instance to IGameObject.

Debugging COM in WinDbg

In this paragraph, I want to focus on debugging COM servers and clients in WinDbg. I will show you some commands, hoping they will be helpful also in your COM troubleshooting.

Let’s start with a breakpoint on the typical entry point for creating COM objects, i.e., the CoCreateInstance function (if the COM client does not use CoCreateInstance, you may set a breakpoint on the CoGetClassObject function):

HRESULT CoCreateInstance(
  [in]  REFCLSID  rclsid,
  [in]  LPUNKNOWN pUnkOuter,
  [in]  DWORD     dwClsContext,
  [in]  REFIID    riid,
  [out] LPVOID    *ppv

Our goal is to print the function parameters (CLSID, IID, and the object address), so we know which object the client creates. If we have combase.dll private symbols, it’s a matter of calling the dv command. Otherwise, we need to rely on the dt command. For 32-bit, I usually create the CoCreateInstance breakpoint as follows:

bp combase!CoCreateInstance "dps @esp L8; dt ntdll!_GUID poi(@esp + 4); dt ntdll!_GUID poi(@esp + 10); .printf /D \"==> obj addr: %p\", poi(@esp+14);.echo; bp /1 @$ra; g"

And the 64-bit version is:

bp combase!CoCreateInstance "dps @rsp L8; dt ntdll!_GUID @rcx; dt ntdll!_GUID @r9; .printf /D \"==> obj addr: %p\", poi(@rsp+28);.echo; bp /1 @$ra; g"

I’m using bp /1 @$ra; g to break at the moment when the function returns. I didn’t want to use, for example, gu because one CoCreateInstance may call another CoCreateInstance, and one-time breakpoints are more reliable in such situations. An example 32-bit breakpoint hit might look as follows (notice that when we have private symbols, dps command nicely prints the GUIDs):

009cfe00  008c36ae ProtossComClient!main+0x6e
009cfe04  008c750c ProtossComClient!_GUID_eff8970e_c50f_45e0_9284_291ce5a6f771
009cfe08  00000000
009cfe0c  00000001
009cfe10  008c74b4 ProtossComClient!_GUID_246a22d5_cf02_44b2_bf09_aab95a34e0cf
009cfe14  009cfe3c
009cfe18  36e9dfe6
009cfe1c  00e8b3e0
   +0x000 Data1            : 0xeff8970e
   +0x004 Data2            : 0xc50f
   +0x006 Data3            : 0x45e0
   +0x008 Data4            : [8]  "???"
   +0x000 Data1            : 0x246a22d5
   +0x004 Data2            : 0xcf02
   +0x006 Data3            : 0x44b2
   +0x008 Data4            : [8]  "???"
==> obj addr: 009cfe3c
ModLoad: 76fb0000 7702e000   C:\Windows\System32\clbcatq.dll
ModLoad: 618b0000 618b9000   C:\Windows\SYSTEM32\ktmw32.dll
ModLoad: 76df0000 76e66000   C:\Windows\System32\sechost.dll
ModLoad: 75c40000 75cbb000   C:\Windows\System32\ADVAPI32.dll
ModLoad: 031a0000 031ae000   C:\Users\me\repos\protoss-com-example\Release\protoss.dll
Breakpoint 1 hit
eax=00000000 ebx=00628000 ecx=00e84ea0 edx=00000000 esi=00e84310 edi=00e8b3e0
eip=008c36ae esp=009cfe18 ebp=009cfe58 iopl=0         nv up ei pl nz na pe nc
cs=0023  ss=002b  ds=002b  es=002b  fs=0053  gs=002b             efl=00000206
ProtossComClient!start_from_probe+0x23 [inlined in ProtossComClient!main+0x6e]:
008c36ae 8b4d04          mov     ecx,dword ptr [ebp+4] ss:002b:009cfe5c=008c56b1

In the output, we can find CLSID (eff8970e-c50f-45e0-9284-291ce5a6f771), IID (246a22d5-cf02-44b2-bf09-aab95a34e0cf) and the created object address: 010ff620. Before we start examining it, we need to check the returned status code. We can do that with the !error @$retreg command (or look at the eax/rax register). If it’s 0 (S_OK), we may set breakpoints on the returned object methods. As each COM object implements at least one interface (virtual class), it will have at least one virtual method table. Thanks to the CoCreateInstance breakpoint, we know the queried IID, and we may find the interface method list in the associated type library. If we don’t have access to the type library (or our IID is IID_IUnknown), we still may learn something about this object by placing breakpoints on the IUnknown interface methods (as you remember, all COM interfaces need to implement it):

struct IUnknown
    virtual HRESULT STDMETHODCALLTYPE QueryInterface( 
        /* [in] */ REFIID riid,
        /* [iid_is][out] */ _COM_Outptr_ void __RPC_FAR *__RPC_FAR *ppvObject) = 0;

    virtual ULONG STDMETHODCALLTYPE AddRef( void) = 0;

    virtual ULONG STDMETHODCALLTYPE Release( void) = 0;

The breakpoint is very similar to what we did for CoCreateInstace. The code snippet below presents the 32- and 64-bit versions:

bp 031a6160 "dt ntdll!_GUID poi(@esp + 8); .printf /D \"==> obj addr: %p\", poi(@esp + C);.echo; bp /1 @$ra; g"

bp 00007ffe`1c751e6a "dt ntdll!_GUID @rdx; .printf /D \"==> obj addr: %p\", @r8;.echo; bp /1 @$ra; g"

Let me show you how I got the address of the QueryInterface function for the 32-bit breakpoint (031a6160). The first four bytes at the object address (009cfe3c) point to the virtual method table. We may find the vtable address by calling dpp 009cfe3c L1:

0:000> dpp 009cfe3c L1
009cfe3c  00e84ea0 031a860c protoss!Probe::`vftable'

We can now dump the content of the vtable:

0:000> dps 031a860c L4
031a860c  031a6160 protoss!Probe::QueryInterface
031a8610  031a6070 protoss!Probe::AddRef
031a8614  031a60b0 protoss!Probe::Release
031a8618  031a6260 protoss!Probe::ConstructBuilding

I knew that the IProbe interface (246A22D5-CF02-44B2-BF09-AAB95A34E0CF) has four methods (the first three coming from the IUnknown interface). Without this knowledge, I would have printed only the first three methods (QueryInterface, AddRef, and Release).

On each QueryInterface return, we may again examine the status code and returned object. The output below presents a QueryInterface hit for an IProbe instance. Let’s spend a moment analyzing it:

   +0x000 Data1            : 0x59644217
   +0x004 Data2            : 0x3e52
   +0x006 Data3            : 0x4202
   +0x008 Data4            : [8]  "???"
==> obj addr: 009cfe00
Breakpoint 2 hit
eax=00000000 ebx=00628000 ecx=5a444978 edx=00000000 esi=00e84310 edi=00e8b3e0
eip=008c34f6 esp=009cfdec ebp=009cfe10 iopl=0         nv up ei pl zr na pe nc
cs=0023  ss=002b  ds=002b  es=002b  fs=0053  gs=002b             efl=00000246
008c34f6 8bf0            mov     esi,eax

The 59644217-3e52-4202-ba49-f473590cc61a GUID represents the IGameObject interface. If you scroll up to the class definitions, you will find that it’s the second interface that the Probe class implements. The vtable at the object address looks as follows:

0:000> dpp 009cfe00 L1
009cfe00  00e84ea4 031a8620 protoss!Probe::`vftable'
0:000> dps 031a8620 L6
031a8620  031a5c40 protoss![thunk]:Probe::QueryInterface`adjustor{4}'
031a8624  031a5c72 protoss![thunk]:Probe::AddRef`adjustor{4}'
031a8628  031a5c4a protoss![thunk]:Probe::Release`adjustor{4}'
031a862c  031a36f0 protoss!Probe::get_Name
031a8630  031a3720 protoss!Probe::get_Minerals
031a8634  031a3740 protoss!Probe::get_BuildTime

You may now be wondering what the adjustor methods are? If we decompile any of them, we will find an interesting assembly code:

0:000> u 031a5c40
031a5c40 836c240404      sub     dword ptr [esp+4],4
031a5c45 e916050000      jmp     protoss!Probe::QueryInterface (031a6160)

To better understand what’s going on here, let’s put the last dpp commands (after CoCreateInstance and QueryInterface) next to each other:

0:000> dpp 009cfe3c L1
009cfe3c 00e84ea0 031a860c protoss!Probe::`vftable' <- CoCreateInstance
0:000> dpp 009cfe00 L1
009cfe00 00e84ea4 031a8620 protoss!Probe::`vftable' <- QueryInterface

In the above output, we see that QueryInterface for IProbe (called by CoCreateInstance) sets the object pointer to the address 00e84ea0. While QueryInterface for IGameObject sets the object pointer to the address 00e84ea4 (four bytes further). And both calls were made on the same instance of the Probe class. Looking at the QueryInterface source code, we can see that this difference is caused by a static_cast:

HRESULT __stdcall Probe::QueryInterface(REFIID riid, void** ppv) {
	std::cout << "Component: Nexus::QueryInterface: " << riid << std::endl;

	if (riid == IID_IUnknown || riid == __uuidof(IProbe)) {
		*ppv = static_cast<IProbe*>(this);
	} else if (riid == __uuidof(IGameObject)) {
		*ppv = static_cast<IGameObject*>(this);
	} else {
		*ppv = NULL;
	return S_OK;

The instruction *ppv = static_cast<IProbe*>(this) is here equivalent to *ppv = this, as IProbe is the default (first) interface of the Probe class, and a pointer to its vtable occupies the first four bytes of the Probe instance memory. IGameObject is the second interface and a pointer to its vtable occupies the next four bytes of the Probe instance memory. After these two vtables, we can find fields of the Probe class. I draw the diagram below to better visualize these concepts:

So, what are those adjustors in the IGameObject vtable? Adjustors allow the compiler to reuse the IUnknown methods already compiled for the IProbe implementation. The only problem with reusing is that methods implementing IProbe expect this to point to the beginning of the Probe class instance. So we can’t simply use their addresses in the IGameObject vtable – we need first to adjust the this pointer. And that’s what the sub dword ptr [esp+4],4 instruction is doing. Then, we can safely jump to the IProbe‘s QueryInterface implementation, and everything will work as expected.

To end the vtables discussion, I have one more WinDbg script for you:

.for (r $t0 = 0; @$t0 < N; r $t0= @$t0 + 1) { bp poi(VTABLE_ADDRESS + @$t0 * @$ptrsize) }

This script sets breakpoints on the first N methods of a given vtable (replace N with any number you need). For example, to break on all the methods of the IGameObject interface, I would run:

.for (r $t0 = 0; @$t0 < 6; r $t0= @$t0 + 1) { bp poi(031a8620 + @$t0 * @$ptrsize) }

We may also track COM objects from a specific DLL. When the application loads the target DLL, we need to set a breakpoint on the exported DllGetClassObject function. For example, let’s debug what is happening when we call CoCreateInstance for the Probe COM object. We start by setting a break on the protoss.dll load:

0:000> sxe ld:protoss.dll
0:000> g
ModLoad: 66c90000 66cd4000   C:\temp\protoss-com-example\Debug\protoss.dll

Next, we set a breakpoint on the protoss!DllGetClassObject function and wait for it to hit:

0:000> bp protoss!DllGetClassObject "dps @esp L8; dt ntdll!_GUID poi(@esp + 4); dt ntdll!_GUID poi(@esp + 8); .printf /D \"==> obj addr: %p\", poi(@esp+c);.echo; bp /1 @$ra; g"
0:000> g
009cea10  75d6b731 combase!CClassCache::CDllPathEntry::GetClassObject+0x5a [onecore\com\combase\objact\dllcache.cxx @ 2581]
009cea14  00e9f354
009cea18  75ce84c8 combase!IID_IClassFactory
009cea1c  009cec40
009cea20  00000000
009cea24  00e9b3f8
009cea28  75ce84c8 combase!IID_IClassFactory
009cea2c  00e9f354
   +0x000 Data1            : 0xeff8970e
   +0x004 Data2            : 0xc50f
   +0x006 Data3            : 0x45e0
   +0x008 Data4            : [8]  "???"
   +0x000 Data1            : 1
   +0x004 Data2            : 0
   +0x006 Data3            : 0
   +0x008 Data4            : [8]  "???"
==> obj addr: 009cec40
Breakpoint 1 hit

We can see that CoCreateInstance uses the Probe class CLSID and asks for the IClassFactory instance. IClassFactory inherits from IUnknown (as all COM interfaces) and contains only two methods:

struct IClassFactory : public IUnknown
    virtual HRESULT STDMETHODCALLTYPE CreateInstance( 
        _In_opt_  IUnknown *pUnkOuter, _In_  REFIID riid, _COM_Outptr_  void **ppvObject) = 0;
    virtual HRESULT STDMETHODCALLTYPE LockServer(/* [in] */ BOOL fLock) = 0;

Let’s set a breakpoint on the CreateInstance method and continue execution:

0:000> dpp 009cec40 L1
009cec40  031ab020 031a863c protoss!ProtossObjectClassFactory<Probe,IProbe>::`vftable'
0:000> dps 031a863c L5
031a863c  031a45e0
031a8640  031a45d0
031a8644  031a45d0
031a8648  031a4500
031a864c  031a44f0
0:000> bp 031a4500 "dt ntdll!_GUID poi(@esp + c); .printf /D \"==> obj addr: %p\", poi(@esp + 10);.echo; bp /1 @$ra; g"
0:000> g
   +0x000 Data1            : 0x246a22d5
   +0x004 Data2            : 0xcf02
   +0x006 Data3            : 0x44b2
   +0x008 Data4            : [8]  "???"
==> obj addr: 009cec58
Breakpoint 3 hit

Our breakpoint gets hit, and we see that the requested IID equals IID_IProbe, which proves what I mentioned previously, that CoCreateInstance internally uses an IClassFactory instance to create a new Probe class instance.

Finally, when we deal with COM automation and need to decode parameters passed to the IDispatch instance, we may use the dt -r1 combase!tagVARIANT ARG_ADDRESS command. It nicely formats all the VARIANT fields but requires the combase.dll symbols.

We reached the end of this long post, and I hope I haven’t bored you too much ๐Ÿ˜… I also hope that the presented materials will help you better understand and troubleshoot COM APIs. The source code of the Protoss COM example is available at

Until the next time! ๐Ÿ‘‹

6 thoughts on “COM+ revisited

  1. rioka January 31, 2022 / 10:31

    Great post, thanks.

    OOC what did you use to generate the memory layout picture?

  2. IY February 1, 2022 / 18:19

    Man, your grey on white is SO abhorridly hard to read… please fix that!

    • Sebastian Solnica February 1, 2022 / 19:39

      Thanks for the feedback. I was trying a new WordPress theme and I agree that the colors weren’t too good. I switched to the old one.

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